We a looking to have players play to 100% of their maximum potential throughout games. In order to give players the best chance of optimal performance we are looking to achieve the following goals. The aim is that warming-up with prepare the players both physically and mentally for a football training session or football game.
Goals of Warm-ups
1. To increase performance levels.
2. To decrease the risk of injury.
Athletic performance increase with increase muscle temperature immediately prior to exercise. As a players muscle temperature increases, so does performance. Both flexibility and energy production in the muscle is improved. Performance can be effected to levels between 10-20%.
Most research suggests that soccer warm-up activities should simulate a variety of intensities (heart rates) that would naturally occur in a game. 15-20 minutes is suggested as a good period of time to allow muscles to reach optimum efficiency. Functional specific activities are suggested to be useful related to the activities of certain positions. Effective warm-up routines can include both short duration static stretches or dynamic stretches.
Physiology of Warm-Up
Studies have shown that a increased muscle temperature decreases muscle and going stiffness and an improved range of motion (Proske et al, 1993)(Wright, V et al, 1961). At the nerve level studies have shown an increase in the transmission of nerve impulses (Bishop, 2003). As a result there is improved in the force-velocity relationship suggesting improved athletic performance (Bennett, 1984)(Brinkhorst, 1977). At the energy production level warm-up suggests an increase in ATPase activity (Barany, M, 1967). Also the energy production processes ofglycogenolysis, glycolysis and high-energy phosphate degradation are improved (Edwards, R, 1972). The release of oxygen from Hemoglobin and Myoglobin is another potential benefit (Bishop, 2003). Muscles not exposed to a warm-up have shown signs of increased blood lactate and other factors suggesting that there may be a faster recovery where a warm-up is performed (Gray, 2002).
Recent research suggests that there is evidence to support going through a soccer warm-up following the half time period. As discussed above a drop in muscle temperature can result in the impairment of muscular performance and also work rate (Lovell, R, 2013). Studies have shown that muscle and core temperature can drop duing half time intervals. Active over passive re-warm-up was shown to be more effecitve instudies (which included SSGs and gym related equipment activities).